Opportunity Zones

A new national community investment program that connects private capital with low-income communities across America

EIG Launches Interactive Map Highlighting Innovative Opportunity Zone Activity

Frequently Asked Questions

(Last updated October 2021)

What are the incentives for investing in Opportunity Zones?

Opportunity Zones are designed to incentivize equity investments in low-income communities nationwide. All of the underlying incentives relate to the tax treatment of capital gains, and are tied to the longevity of an investor’s stake in a Qualified Opportunity Fund (QOF). There are three core tax incentives:

Temporary deferral: A temporary deferral of inclusion in taxable income for capital gains reinvested into an Opportunity Fund. The deferred gain must be recognized on the earlier of the date on which the Opportunity Zone investment is disposed of or December 31, 2026.

Step-up in basis: A step-up in basis for the deferred capital gains reinvested in an Opportunity Fund. The basis is increased by 10 percent if the investment in the Opportunity Fund is held by the taxpayer for at least five years and by an additional 5 percent if held for at least seven years, thereby excluding up to 15 percent of the original deferred gain from taxation.

Permanent exclusion: A permanent exclusion from taxable income of capital gains from the sale or exchange of an investment in an Opportunity Fund if the investment is held for at least 10 years. This exclusion only applies to gains accrued on investments made through an Opportunity Fund. There is no permanent exclusion possible for the initially deferred gain.

For a thorough overview and analysis of the benefits of Opportunity Zones investment, see EIG’s Opportunity Zones Fact Sheet.

Is my community an Opportunity Zone?

While a mapping tool is available on our website, the Treasury Department’s CDFI Fund provides the authoritative reference map for whether an address is located in a Qualified Opportunity Zone. They also provide the official list of Opportunity Zone census tracts. Zone designations were certified in Spring 2018 and will remain in effect until December 31, 2028. Any qualifying investment made through a qualifying Opportunity Fund into a qualifying Opportunity Zone will be eligible for the applicable tax benefits through that date. The law currently does not allow for changes to the map of designated communities.

How were Opportunity Zones designated?

Low-income community census tracts, defined in Section 45D of the Internal Revenue Code, are the building blocks of Opportunity Zones. Eligible low-income census tracts generally had either poverty rates of at least 20 percent or median family incomes no greater than 80 percent of their surrounding areas, according to the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey data at the time of designation.

The governor or chief executive of every U.S. state and territory nominated up to 25 percent of their low-income census tracts to be certified by the Secretary of the Treasury as Opportunity Zones. Eligibility was limited to only a portion of each state’s low-income census tracts in order to concentrate capital and increase the likelihood of meaningful economic development taking root in zones. Governors were given discretion to include moderate-income census tracts adjacent to nominated qualifying low-income ones for up to 5 percent of their nominations in order to create coherent economic zones and account for local priorities. 

The designation process resulted in 97.4 percent of OZ tracts qualifying under the low-income community definition, and 2.6 percent qualifying under the law’s “contiguous tracts” provision. Fully 71 percent of Opportunity Zones communities met Treasury’s “severely distressed” standard at the time of designation.

Congress made a special exception for Puerto Rico. The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 allowed Puerto Rico to designate 100 percent of its low-income census tracts as Opportunity Zones. In 2019, the IRS issued a notice designating two additional census tracts in Puerto Rico as OZs that qualified based on the 2012-2016 ACS data. As a result, 98 percent of the island’s census tracts are Qualified Opportunity Zones. 

More information on the designation process and a statistical overview of designated tracts can be found here.

What is an Opportunity Fund?

A Qualified Opportunity Fund (QOF) is any private investment vehicle organized as a corporation or partnership with the specific purpose of investing in Opportunity Zone assets. 

Who can establish an Opportunity Fund?

The statute allows for broad participation in the creation of Opportunity Funds with the goal of drawing a wide array of investors to support the broad variety of needs in low income communities nationwide. Any entity, from large banks to a community development financial institution, from a venture capital group to a developer consortium, as well as regional economic development organizations and even individual tax payers can establish a fund as long as they follow the guidelines set out by the statute and Treasury (in the process of being finalized).

How is a Qualified Opportunity Fund established?

To become a qualified Opportunity Fund, an eligible taxpayer self-certifies by completing a form (Form 8996) and submitting the form with the taxpayer’s federal income tax return for the taxable year.

Opportunity Funds must hold at least 90 percent of their assets in qualifying Opportunity Zone Property (defined below), and will be tested at the 6-month and year-end points to ensure compliance.

What can an Opportunity Fund invest in?

The policy enables funds to be responsive to the needs of different communities, allowing for investment in operating businesses, equipment, and real property. For example, funds can make equity investments in new or expanding businesses by purchasing original-issue stock of the company if substantially all of the company’s tangible property is and remains located in an Opportunity Zone. Funds can take original interests in partnerships that meet the same criteria. Funds can also invest directly in qualifying property, such as real estate or infrastructure, if the property is used in the active conduct of a business, and if either the original use of the property commences with the fund or the fund substantially improves the property by investing at least as much as the investor’s basis in refurbishments.

Can an Opportunity Fund invest in multiple Opportunity Zones?

Yes. An Opportunity Fund must invest at least 90 percent of its assets in qualified Opportunity Zone property, whether in one zone or across multiple zones.

Can I invest my capital gains directly in an Opportunity Zone business or property, without going through an Opportunity Fund, and qualify for the tax incentives?

No. In order to qualify for the tax incentives, investors must invest through a QOF.

Are there guardrails that limit how the incentive can be used?

Yes. While OZs were designed to encourage broad participation among communities and investors, there are a number of important statutory and regulatory guardrails governing how the Opportunity Zones incentive can be used. Investments are not eligible for the tax incentive simply because they are made inside an Opportunity Zone community. Investors cannot simply park their money in real estate, for instance, since investors in used property are required to substantially improve it in order to receive benefits from the incentive. Treasury will conduct twice-yearly tests to ensure funds maintain at least 90 percent of their assets in qualified property and levy penalties for violations. In addition, standard related party restrictions apply to all zone and fund transactions. Tangible property and active conduct tests will prevent zones from being used as patent boxes, and entities whose assets are primarily financial, such as banks or holding companies, are not eligible for investment. A “substantial improvement” test ensures that investors don’t just acquire and passively hold property, but instead truly invest in new and additive economic activity in a neighborhood. The final regulations, which Treasury and IRS issued in December 2019, provide additional parameters for investors and funds that reinforce the statutory guardrails. 

Does the Economic Innovation Group have an Opportunity Fund or facilitate investment in Opportunity Zones?

No. EIG is a research and policy focused organization and, as such, does not make or facilitate investments. EIG provides information about the Opportunity Zones incentive and how it works, as well as data about the designated zones. We are committed to working with all involved stakeholders–from investors to entrepreneurs, public sector leaders, philanthropies, and non-profits–to raise awareness and support this ecosystem and early market.

Previous Testimonial

Creating a stronger, fairer New Jersey begins with expanding opportunity equally across all communities; the Opportunity Zone Program will be a vital resource in stimulating long-term economic growth and investment in cities and towns that need it most, and more importantly, in generating economic opportunities for our residents.

Phil Murphy

Governor of New Jersey

We focused on local, regional, and state priorities, as well as Virginia’s diverse geography and economic opportunities, to strategically select a balance of zones that align with other state and local economic development and revitalization efforts. My administration is committed to maximizing this important federal tool to strengthen our local and state economic development efforts and ensure Virginia is at the forefront of attracting new Opportunity fund investments.

Ralph Northam

Governor of Virginia

Opportunity Zones are an exciting new tool for building economic development in underserved communities. These grants will help guide us as we implement the program to maximize the benefits of job creation and neighborhood improvement in the most vulnerable areas of our city.

Keisha Lance-Bottoms

Mayor of Atlanta, Georgia

My administration believes that Opportunity Zones can only work to revitalize our neighborhoods when local knowledge, creativity and ingenuity are harnessed to invest in the quality of life of our residents. That is why we are setting a goal to train 500 Birmingham residents on Opportunity Zones by summer 2020 so that residents can identify and shape projects throughout our city.

Randall Woodfin

Mayor of Birmingham, Alabama

We are honored to be recognized as a national leader in Opportunity Zones. With 126 designated zones that span the state, Colorado’s Opportunity Zones are attracting capital to our state, helping to grow our economy and supporting our rural communities. I’m proud of all the hard work so many have done to ensure Colorado leads the way in deploying this compelling federal tax incentive.

Jared Polis

Governor of Colorado

These Opportunity Zone designations will help build on our ongoing community development efforts and encourage additional private investment where it can have the most impact – in economically-distressed communities.

John Carney

Governor, Delaware

By investing $12 million in Rebuild Illinois funds in Opportunity Zone projects, we can take advantage of this federal tax incentive to stretch our capital dollars further while creating jobs and opportunities in communities that have suffered from a lack of investment for decades.

J.B. Pritzker

Governor of Illinois

Opportunity Zones have the potential to generate the kind of economic activity that can transform lower-income areas across our state. Our economic developers, local governments and investment professionals are well-positioned to put this program to work for Louisiana.

John Bel Edwards

Governor of Louisiana

We plan to do everything in our power to utilize new and existing state and federal programs, grants and funding sources, and to have all of our state agencies work collaboratively with our county and municipal governments and the private sector to supercharge our opportunity zone revitalization. Our plan is to make Maryland’s 149 opportunity zones the most competitive ones in America.

Larry Hogan

Governor of Maryland

The opportunity zone program helps leverage private investment in Massachusetts cities and towns and can be a catalyst for job creation and economic activity.

Charlie Baker

Governor of Massachusetts

If we want to call Michigan a successful state, we’ve got to expand opportunities for business owners in our opportunity zones. I’m confident that the cabinet I put together will partner with Michigan business owners and ensure they have the resources they need to create more good-paying jobs. This executive directive will take a much-needed step toward building vibrant communities here in Michigan.

Gretchen Whitmer

Governor of Michigan

The Opportunity Zones program provides Minnesota a great opportunity to work with local community leaders and our federal partners to build upon that important work and improve people’s lives.

Mark Dayton

Former Governor of Minnesota

One of the goals of my administration is to spread investment to all corners of New Mexico and we want to use every tool we can to accomplish that. That’s why we are going ‘all in’ for Opportunity Zones and giving an extra boost to help these communities.

Michelle Lujan Grisham

Governor of New Mexico

These Opportunity Zones and the funds that support them will provide access to capital in low-income communities that otherwise may not attract it. It’s another tool to help cities reach their full potential and create healthy, vibrant communities that can attract and retain a 21st-century workforce.

Doug Burgum

Governor of North Dakota

Communities nationwide are competing for private investment in their Opportunity Zones, and we want to give Ohio communities the edge. This will make it more attractive for investors to direct their investments here.

Mike DeWine

Governor of Ohio

Our goal is economic prosperity for all Utahns. Opportunity Zones will go a long way in helping to support growth in economically-distressed areas throughout the state.

Gary Herbert

Governor of Utah

We are focused on leveraging the Opportunity Zones incentive to create new jobs, amenities, and economic opportunities for DC neighborhoods that need them most. With the OZ Marketplace and Community Corps, we are providing existing residents and small businesses owners with the expertise and platforms they need to navigate potential Opportunity Zone transactions.

Muriel Bowser

Mayor of Washington, D.C.

From the City of Pawtucket’s perspective, without those types of opportunity zones and the [tax-increment financing] district legislation, we would be sitting here as we have for the last twenty something years in Pawtucket without these types of developments.

Don Grebien

Mayor of Pawtucket, Rhode Island

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